Most of the countries participating in the negotiations consider that the adoption of the agreement will bring certain economic benefits; However, there is considerable disagreement about the amount of benefits that the agreement would actually bring. A Study by the University of Michigan found that if all barriers to trade in agriculture, services and manufacturing were reduced by 33% through the Doha Development Agenda, there would be a $574.0 billion increase in global prosperity.  A 2008 study by World Bank Chief Economist Kym Anderson found that global income could increase by more than $3 trillion a year, of which $2500 billion would go to developing countries.  Others predicted more modest outcomes, e.g. By 2015, global net gains in social welfare range from $84 billion to $287 billion.   Pascal Lamy cautiously estimates that the agreement will bring an increase of $130 billion.  Doha negotiators agreed to reach modalities for the elimination or elimination of tariff and non-tariff barriers by the end of May 2003. This deadline, as well as the following ones, were not respected. Issues relating to NAMA were not discussed in Cancun and there was no agreement on the draft texts proposed for consideration at that Ministerial Conference. The Framework Agreement of July 2004 adopted the use of a non-linear tariff reduction formula applied line by line (i.e. which can contribute to the balancing or harmonization of customs duties) and the ministerial country of Hong Kong agreed to the use of a Swiss formula. However, the Minister did not agree on the coefficients and they were the subject of ongoing negotiations.
The Framework Agreement of July 2004 also agreed that tariff reductions would be calculated on the basis of effective tariff rates and not on the basis of applied tariff rates. 7. “India claims victory in Nairobi while preserving its key Doha priorities,” Inside U.S. Trade, December 22, 2015, insidetrade.com/daily-news/india-claims-victory-nairobi-preserving-its-key-priorities-doha; World Trade Organization, “Stockholding public for Food Security: Ministerial Decision of 19 December 2015”, WT/MIN(15)/44, WT/L/979, 21 December 2015. .