At COP 15 in Copenhagen in 2009, it was hoped that a new legally binding agreement would be reached in line with the Kyoto Protocol. Although the meeting did not live up to these expectations, the Copenhagen agreement notably recognized the need to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions in order to limit global temperature rise to less than 2 degrees Celsius. Australia`s NDC Intended, published by the federal government in August 2015 before the Paris Agreement was adopted, has required Australia to achieve a “macroeconomic target to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 26-28% from 2005 to 2030 levels.” However, Australia has qualified its objectives by reserving the right to adapt its objective, “if the rules and other terms of support of the agreement are different in a way that greatly influences the definition of our objective.” Australia did not commit to carbon neutrality in the second half of this century. Australia is also a global laggard in welcoming electric vehicles. There are only 7,300 on our roads, and according to the industry, they account for about 0.2 per cent of annual new car sales. Tony Abbott, the prime minister who signed the Paris Agreement in Australia before losing the Liberals` lead in 2015, says Australia must withdraw from the treaty to “end the obsession with emissions, which is at the heart of our power crisis.” The government has shown no signs of expanding the fight against climate change and has no intention of improving its NDC target for 2030, nor of adopting a net zero-reduction target or other higher emission reductions. The government plans to achieve the NDC`s 2030 Paris Agreement target by using excess emission units from the Kyoto Protocol, significantly reducing effective emission reductions, while other countries have ruled out the transfer.  With regard to multilateral treaties, signature alone is not sufficient and “ratification” or “accession” is necessary for countries to be legally linked. Even then, a treaty only enters into force once a certain number of ratifications have been received, depending on the terms of the treaty. On June 1, 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump announced that the United States would withdraw from the agreement.
 Under Article 28, the effective withdrawal date of the United States is the fastest possible date, given that the agreement entered into force in the United States on November 4, 2016. If it had decided to withdraw from the UNFCCC, it could be informed immediately (the UNFCCC came into force in 1994 for the United States) and come into force a year later. On August 4, 2017, the Trump administration officially announced to the United Nations that the United States intends to withdraw from the Paris Agreement as soon as it has a legal right to do so.  The formal declaration of resignation could only be submitted after three years of implementation of the agreement for the United States in 2019.   The Kyoto Protocol is an instrument of the climate convention that was adopted in 1997 at the Third Conference of the Parties (COP 3), which did not enter into force until 2005.  The Kyoto Protocol requires some industrialized countries (the “Schedule I parts”) to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.