The Kigali Amendment is a legally binding international agreement that aims to create rights and obligations in international law. The amendment is legally binding on a contracting party only if it has come into force with respect to that party. It has divided the signatory parties into three groups – The first group consists of rich and developed economies such as the United States, the United Kingdom and EU countries, which will begin to gradually reduce CFCs by 2019 and lower them to 15% of 2012 levels by 2016. The Paris agreement on climate change mitigation was followed by another important global agreement, the Kigali Agreement. In this article, we explain the importance of the Kigali Agreement and its relevance to India. January 3, 2019: The Kigali amendment to the Montreal Protocol on ozone-depleting substances came into force on January 1, 2019, after ratification by 65 countries. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) announced its entry into force and said it would help reduce the production and consumption of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), greenhouse gases (GHGs) and thus prevent global warming by up to 0.4oC this century. The need for the amendment stems from the 1987 Montreal Protocol, which controls ozone-depleting substances. Because CFCs have been used as an alternative to ozone-depleting substances in refrigeration facilities, their role in global warming has become a major problem. In 2016, the parties to the Montreal Protocol adopted the CFC Convention concluding the 28th Meeting of the Parties (MOP 28) in Kigali, Rwanda. Governments have agreed that it will come into force on January 1, 2019, provided that at least 20 parties to the Montreal Protocol have ratified it. On 17 November 2017, Sweden and Trinidad and Tobago tabled their ratification instruments, exceeding the required threshold.
The Kigali amendment to the Montreal Protocol is an international agreement to gradually reduce the consumption and production of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). The amendment was accepted at the 28th meeting of the parties to the Montreal Protocol in Kigali on October 15, 2016. In Decision XXVIII/1, they adopted an amendment to the protocol (the Kigali amendment).  And yet, unlike many Obama-era artifacts – the Paris Accord, the Iran Agreement, the Dream Act, the Affordable Care Act – Mr. Trump did not immediately try to destroy the amendment. In fact, his government expressed its support for this early on. In November 2017, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs said it had “started the process” to consider ratification. It is time for Mr. Trump to adopt the Kigali agreement. The agreement came into force in January of this year.
To date, 72 countries have ratified it. The United States is not among them, and Mr. Trump is showing no sign that he is giving the Senate approval for approval. In an effort to protect the climate and the ozone layer in October 2016 at the 28th meeting of the parties to the Montreal Protocol on ozone-depleting substances in Kigali, Rwanda, more than 170 countries agreed on a change to the protocol.